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Speech Sound Disorders

There are two main types of speech sound disorders.


Articulation disorders are characterized by difficulties in producing specific speech sounds correctly. In typical speech, the accurate production of a sound relies on the precise coordination of various articulatory structures, including the tongue, lips, jaw, teeth, palate, and throat. When a child struggles with articulation, their speech may become unclear, affecting their ability to communicate effectively.


Phonological process disorders happen when a child makes predictable and typical patterns of speech sound errors. The individual sounds may be produced correctly isolation, but they may be used in the wrong place during the production of words or sentences. One example is Fronting (replacing back sounds like /k/ and /g/ with front sounds like /t/ and /d/. So the word "cab" would become "tab").

Kids talking at schooll

Speech sound disorders can stem from various causes. Some children may have an inherent difficulty coordinating their articulators, while others may experience challenges due to oral motor weaknesses or structural abnormalities. Additionally, hearing impairments, developmental delays, or neurological conditions can contribute to speech sound disorders. Identifying the underlying cause of the disorder is crucial for developing an effective treatment plan.

Understanding the complexities of speech sound production, identifying the underlying causes, and seeking professional speech therapy are essential steps in addressing these challenges. With the guidance of a speech-language pathologist and the support of parents, children can make significant progress in developing accurate and intelligible speech, empowering them to effectively express themselves and engage in meaningful communication.

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